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H2a2a origin

Today, much of what we know is raw material from Geno 2. This is built around the structure of the mtDNA Phylotree. The encyclopedia brings the data from those sources together in a format that allows new knowledge of our maternal origins to emerge. A Haplogroup A is a branch on the maternal tree of human kind.

It is a child of major haplogroup N. It was likely born in East Asia around 24, years ago. Behar et al. Through historic travels, members of this line live across East Asia and the Americas. A1 Haplogroup A1 is a branch on the maternal tree of humanity. It was born between 7, and 18, years ago Behar et al. It is worth noting that prior to Phylotree build 16 this lineage was known as A4a.

A10 Haplogroup A10 is a branch on the maternal tree of human kind. Its age is between 3, and 12, years Behar et al. A11 Haplogroup A11 is an Asian branch on the maternal tree of human kind. The woman who founded this line lived between 12, and 21, years ago Behar et al b. This line was likely born in the Tibetan Plateau based on the origins for its daughter lines. A11a Haplogroup A11a is a branch on the maternal tree of human kind.

Its age is between 1, and 10, years Behar et al. A11b Haplogroup A11b is a branch on the maternal tree of human kind. Its age is between 4, and 15, years Behar et al. A12 Haplogroup A12 is a Siberian branch on the maternal tree of humanity.

Its age has not been determined. A12a Haplogroup A12a is a branch on the maternal tree of humanity. It is difficult to be sure with limited data, but this branch likely originates in Siberia. A13 Haplogroup A13 is an Asia branch on the maternal tree of humanity.

Its age and precise origin are not yet clear. A14 Haplogroup A14 is a branch on the maternal tree of humanity. Its age has not been determined, and, because it is found in a wide range of modern populations, its exact origin in Asia is unclear.Did you ever wonder about the person who took the original mitochondrial DNA test and became the Cambridge Reference Sequence?

That was inso that person may well still be alive today. But are they? Does anyone know? She helped me unravel this. Rebekah is one of the admins for the massive haplogroup H project and the sole admin for many of the subgroups.

So like Bill Hurst is Mr. Hap J, Rebekah is Ms. So that should confirm for you right there that indeed the CRS is haplogroup H. And it is, but which subgroup? Every haplogroup has a defining list of mutations that must be present or back mutated in order to assign that haplogroup level. This week, I had a client who had a long list of those haplogroup mutations attributed to their haplogroup by definition, but none of the haplogroup defining mutations were listed on their CRS mutation list.

Keep reading. Care to guess why their list of haplogroup defining mutations was not on their personal page list of mutations? Someone out there is pretty sharp…. Here are the required mutations for the different subclades of H that lead us to H2a2a.

These results, shown above, with the exception of two mutations in the HVR2 region, are equivalent to the Cambridge Reference Sequence. It is. Most of the people in Europe show this location as a mutation. The only two mutations that this person has that differs from the CRS are the insertions at locations andshown above.

I realize this is a bit confusing. Instead of comparing mitochondrial DNA to someone buried on a branch of haplogroup H who was alive inwe should really be comparing everyone to Mitochondrial Eve.Jasia of Creative Gene is also an "H," and a few years ago was publishing to a Haplogroup H blog she created.

I just found I am in Haplogroup H, that they took down further to H1bb, I am working on understanding, so I am revisiting some of my old friends who have already been there.

Thanks for the post. Our mtDNA haplogroup results are in and we belong to the H haplogroup. The haplogroup H is predominantly European and originated outside of Europe before the last glacial maximum. Within the H haplogroup there are several subclades H1, H2, H3, etc. The H2 subclade is found in the highest frequency in Eastern Europe and the Caucasus it can also be found in Western Asia. The H2 subclade is broken down even further into H2a and H2b.

We fall under the H2a division, which is found most frequently in Eastern Europe, but is not found in Asia like the H2b group. Our exact result was H2a2a which happens to also be the CRS! I have joined several H2a2a forums online and most of the participants have Scandinavian or Northern European heritage. Which aligns with the research I have done tracing our maternal ancestors to Norway. However, it gets even more interesting when we drill down even further and look at our CR coding region.

Most mtDNA test do not include this result, but we went with the full sequence test and it was well worth it because we have a very unique CR mutation at position From my research online, it appears that our G mutation is a silent mutationso we shouldn't have to worry about any health related issues. Our CR G result is pretty rare. The references I have found in forums to it indicate that people with this mutation have ancestors from Scandinavia 3 of us so far.

It isn't in the PhyloTree most complete mtDNA tree available yet, but once there are more results with this mutation, it could be added.

h2a2a origin

I will post more as information becomes available. Email This BlogThis! FranE January 21, at AM.Yet outside consumer genetics, the word haplogroup is still unknown. Your haplogroup, or genetic branch of the human family tree, tells you about your deep ancestry—often thousands of years ago—and shows you the possible paths of migration Your haplogroup, or genetic branch of the human family tree, tells you about your deep ancestry—often thousands of years ago—and shows you the possible paths of migration taken by these ancient ancestors.

Your haplogroup also places you within a community of relatives, some distant, with whom you unmistakably share an ancestor way back when. You inherited your mitochondrial DNA purely from your mother, who inherited it from her mother, and her mother, and so on. Today, all members of haplogroup H1 are direct descendants from the first H1 woman that lived thousands of years ago.

The origin of haplogroup H1 continues to be a debate as well. Most researchers suggest it was born in the Middle East between 10, and 15, years ago, and spread from there to Europe and North Africa.

However, ancient DNA studies show that its ancestral haplogroup H first appears in Central Europe just 8, year ago. Its vast diversity and high concentration in Spain and Portugal, suggests H1 may have existed there during the last Ice Age, and spread north after glaciers melted.

Yet others postulate that its young age and high frequency indicate it spread as agriculture took shape in Europe. Any of the scenarios is possible. As technology improves, more DNA is extracted and sequenced from ancient bones, and more people contribute their DNA to the Genographic Projectwe will keep learning about H1, and all other haplogroups. It is because of participants contributing their DNA, their stories, and their hypotheses to science that we can carry forward this exciting work uncovering our deep genetic connections.

December 24, Haplogroup H3, sister branch to H1 The origin of haplogroup H1 continues to be a debate as well. Happy Haplogroups! Miguel Vilar. Miguel is also a molecular anthropologist and a science writer. His fieldwork has taken him to remote places throughout the South Pacific, East Africa, Mesoamerica, and the Caribbean.

In the laboratory he researches the modern genetic diversity of human populations from Melanesia, Micronesia, North and Central America, and the Caribbean. Miguel has published in several anthropology and genetics journals, as well as popular science magazines.For people who have tested and are assigned the maternal haplogroup H2a2 or who are believed to have had that maternal haplogroup based on descendants tested. There are currently almost 40 defined subclades of H.

For the defining SNPs see Phylotree. To participate in this project, join or follow the project, add your oldest known ancestor in the direct maternal line who belonged to this haplogroup.

h2a2a origin

The profile must be set to public in order to add it. People Projects Discussions Surnames. Embed Project. Security Code:. Log In. Geni requires JavaScript! Please enable JavaScript in your browser's settings to use this part of Geni. Join the world's largest family tree. Male Female. By continuing you accept our Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Start My Family Tree!

Project Tags. Add tags. Related Projects. Top Surnames. View in: English default English default.More than a third of the European pool of human mitochondrial DNA mtDNA is fragmented into a number of subclades of haplogroup hg H, the most frequent hg throughout western Eurasia. Although there has been considerable recent progress in studying mitochondrial genome variation in Europe at the complete sequence resolution, little data of comparable resolution is so far available for regions like the Caucasus and the Near and Middle East—areas where most of European genetic lineages, including hg H, have likely emerged.

This gap in our knowledge causes a serious hindrance for progress in understanding the demographic prehistory of Europe and western Eurasia in general. Here we describe the phylogeography of hg H in the populations of the Near East and the Caucasus. We have analyzed samples of hg H at high resolution, including 15 novel complete mtDNA sequences. As in Europe, most of the present-day Near Eastern—Caucasus area variants of hg H started to expand after the last glacial maximum LGM and presumably before the Holocene.

Furthermore, irrespective of their common origin, significant differences between the distribution of hg H sub-hgs in Europe and in the Near East and South Caucasus imply limited post-LGM maternal gene flow between these regions.

The Levantine part of the Near East was the area that was colonized foremost, though likely only episodically, aboutyears before present YBP Shea Based on genetic data, it has been suggested that the earliest phase of the long-lasting settlement of Eurasia by anatomically modern humans AMH started 60,—70, YBP and proceeded alongside the southern coast of the supercontinent, probably crossing first the Red Sea around Bab-el-Mandeb, continuing to India and further East Cavalli-Sforza et al.

The demographic history of human populations during the Pleistocene has been profoundly influenced by large-scale climate fluctuations, from which one of the most significant took place between 19, and 22, YBP, during the last glacial maximum LGMwhen the climate became significantly colder and dryer Yokoyama et al. During this cold peak, extreme deserts occupied most of the Near East and Central Asia, whereas much of Europe and northern Asia was covered by steppe—tundra, forcing forest into scattered refugium areas in the western Caucasus and southern European peninsulas Adams and Faure ; Peyron et al.

Postglacial expansion—recolonization from refugia is a concept that has recently been used to explain the genetic diversity of the present-day Europeans Torroni et al.

After the postglacial recolonization, another expansion happened thousands of years later, when agriculture started to develop in the Near East, resulting, according to many authors, in an outward migration of agriculturist populations to Europe and different parts of Asia, with an impact, the range of which is still hotly debated Ammerman and Cavalli-Sforza ; Sokal et al.

An absolute majority of the western Eurasian mitochondrial DNA mtDNA pool consists of a small number of phylogenetically well-characterized branches of haplogroup hg R. It has been accepted for some time now that most of the mtDNA hgs presently found in Europe, including hg H Torroni et al. A number of hg H subclades show characteristic regional distribution. Irrespective of their likely ancestral status relative to Europeans, the West Asian and the Caucasus populations have been profoundly underrepresented in the published mtDNA data sets.

Here we analyze spatial and temporal spread of hg H in the Near East and the Caucasus and interpret the obtained results in a comprehensive West Eurasian context of this major maternal lineage, informative in terms of ancient human migrations between West Asia, the Caucasus, and Europe. A total of 6, samples were screened for the absence of Alu I restriction site induced by a T to C transition at npindicative of hg H.

Of these, 1, fell to hg H and samples were involved to detailed clustering. Samples were divided into 11 groups, based on linguistic similarity and geographic location: 1 54 Armenians, 2 30 samples from Georgia 22 Georgians and 8 Mingrelians3 45 Ossetians 25 from North Ossetia, 20 from South Ossetia4 69 from the northwestern Caucasus 29 Adygeis, 12 Abazins, 28 Abkhazians5 50 Karatchaians—Balkarians 19 Karatchaians, 31 Balkarians6 60 from Daghestan 26 Dargins, 14 Avars, 11 Lezgins, 9 Tabasarans7 52 from the Arabian Peninsula 20 from Saudi Arabia, 18 from Kuwait, 9 from Oman, 5 from Yemen8 34 Lebanese, 9 28 Syrians, 10 33 Jordanians, and 11 90 Turks.

All confirmed hg H mtDNAs were subsequently screened for a series of single nucleotide polymorphisms that define different subbranches of this mtDNA lineage. Twenty-four polymorphisms throughout the mitochondrial genome were analyzed in all samples.

Transitions at nps,,,and TA transversion were detected by RFLP analysis fig. Mutations at nps and were detected by the absence of the Mbo I cutting site. To distinguish between the 2 transitions, all the samples that lacked this site were sequenced.One of the sad, and unfortunate facts of life, is that many Anthropologists, Researchers and Academics, still refuse to acknowledge that Africans were the first Human colonizers of Europe, not to mention the rest of the world too.

To hide this fact, they prefer to use the terms Aurignacian and Gravettian cultures to describe their habitations; which is fine, it still means Grimaldi. However, the current fad of attributing Grimaldi artifacts to the Humanoid hybrid Cro-Magnon is in all ways, mystifying. After all, thought different, Cro-Magnon like Grimaldi, was a Black African: albeit an admixture of Modern Humans and Neanderthal, so what's the point?

Clearly obfuscation can be the only goal. The Aurignacian culture is an archaeological culture of the Upper Palaeolithic, located in Europe and southwest Asia. It lasted broadly within the period from ca. They also made pendants, bracelets and ivory beads, and three-dimensional figurines. Perforated rods, thought to be spear throwers or shaft wrenches, are also found at their sites.

The Gravettian toolmaking culture was a specific archaeological industry of the European Upper Palaeolithic era prevalent before the last glacial epoch. It is named after the type site of La Gravette in the Dordogne region of France where its characteristic tools were first found and studied. The earliest signs of the culture were found at Kozarnika, Bulgaria. One of the earliest artifacts is also found in eastern Crimea Buran-Kaya see Crimean Mountains dated 32, years ago.

It lasted until 22, years ago.

What is a Haplogroup and What Can It Tell You About Your Family Tree? - Ancestral Findings - AF-071

Where found, it succeeded the artifacts datable to the Aurignacian culture. When investigations into human genetics first began, Albino scientists thought that it would prove their origins, their superiority, and clearly delineate between Whites and all other people.

This is of course quite consistent with the reality that White people are merely the Albinos of Blacks, since Albinism does not effect the entire genetic makeup of a person, they retain their original Black genetic make-up.

That is how they try to explain haplogroups that are found widely in other parts of the world and Africa too.

h2a2a origin

An enormous haplogroup spanning all the continents, the macro-haplogroup M, like its sibling N, is a descendant of haplogroup L3.

All mtDNA haplogroups considered native outside of Africa are descendants of either haplogroup M or its sibling haplogroup N. In particular, it is often taken to indicate that it is very likely that there was one particularly major prehistoric migration of humans out of Africa, and that both M and N were part of this colonization process. Much of discussion concerning the origins of haplogroup M has been related to its subclade haplogroup M1, which is the only variant of macrohaplogroup M found in Africa.

Two possibilities were being considered as potential explanations for the presence of M1 in Africa:. M was present in the ancient population which later gave rise to both M1 in Africa, and M more generally found in Eurasia.

List of haplogroups of historic people

The presence of M1 in Africa is the result of a back-migration from Asia which occurred sometime after the Out of Africa migration 40, years ago. An enormous haplogroup spanning many continents, the macro-haplogroup N, like its sibling M, is a descendant of haplogroup L3.

M and N are the signature haplogroups that define the out of Africa migration and the subsequent spread to rest of the world. The global distribution of haplogroups N and M, indicates that very likely, there was one particularly major prehistoric migration of humans out of Africa, and both N and M were part of the same colonization process.

At the time of writing R subclades were numbered from R0 a.

mtDNA and the Origin of the Icelanders: Deciphering Signals of Recent Population History

R0a peaks in the southern Arabian peninsula is common among Arabs and Middle-Easterners. It could be connected to the Indo-Iranians. The Sami are characterised by a high percentage of haplogroups U5b1 and V.

h2a2a origin

The Berbers are the indigenous populationof north-west Africa. Although their Y-DNA is almost perfectly homogenous, belonging to haplogroup E-M81, Berber maternal lineages show a much greater diversity, as well as regional disparity. It is also found at low density in Europe, though mostly limited to Iberia. The Gypsies Romani people originated in the Indian subcontinent and mixed with local population in the Middle East and Eastern Europe over the centuries.

About half of the Gypsy population belong to haplogroup M, and more specifically M5 reflected by Y-haplogroup H1awhich is otherwise exclusive to South Asia. Intriguingly, the Saami of Scandinavia and the Berbers of North Africa were found to share an extremely young branch, aged merely 9, years. This unexpected finding not only confirms that the Franco-Cantabrian refuge area of southwestern Europe was the source of late-glacial expansions of hunter-gatherers that repopulated northern Europe after the Last Glacial Maximum but also reveals a direct maternal link between those European hunter-gatherer populations and the Berbers.

Because of maternal transmission and lack of recombination, the sequence differentiation of human mtDNA has been generated by only the sequential accumulation of new mutations along radiating maternal lineages.


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